Specialty chemicals has a huge role in global economy. Not even a single industry can exist without the use of specialty chemical. In virtually every process of step followed in any industry the use of specialty chemical can be found. Even in agriculture specialty chemical is being used to increase the production of corps. In agriculture specialty chemical can be found in many forms like fertilizers.
Some major areas apart from agriculture, where specialty chemical is used are construction & pipes, electronic materials, ink and graphics, fabric care, packaging, paint and coating, paper and board, personal care, photo and digital imaging, plastics and rubber, textile and fibers, water treatment and in automotive areas. By reading this long list anyone can know how important is the role of Specialty chemical.
Now for the convenience of our reader some more examples and illustrations are given below. Under the category specialty chemical there are several subcategories like adhesive chemicals, mining chemicals, agricultural chemicals, aromatic chemicals, automotive chemicals, battery chemicals, cleaning chemicals, coating chemicals, construction chemicals and cosmetics chemicals to name a few.
Now, as far as the use of these chemicals are concerned their name suggests a lot about it. For example agricultural chemicals are used in field of agriculture, mining chemicals are used in mining industry and so on. Some specialty chemicals can be used in specific work like caustic soda is used in dry cleaning.
Furthermore there could be different kind of industry/work specific specialty chemicals like electroplating chemicals, fabric chemicals, fine chemicals, laundry chemicals, metal cleaning chemicals, petroleum refining chemical pharmaceutical chemicals and printing chemicals etc. The list of specialty chemical is formidable so as their work. The role of Specialty chemical is so vital in that without them modern industry and civilization can't be even dreamed of.
Petroleum Refining Chemicals
In the precess of Petroleum Refining, a variety of chemicals have been used. Petroleum Refining Chemicals are applied at different stages in the refining process. In order to obtain different output from petroleum products, a number of varied chemicals are applied to a specific stage. Some examples of petroleum refining chemicals are as mentioned below :
Sulphuric Acid and Hydrofluoric Acid. Sulphuric acid and hydrofluoric acid are used primarily as catalysts in alkylation processes. Sulphuric acid is also used in some treatment processes.
Leaded Gasoline Additives. Tetraethyl lead (TEL) and tetramethyl lead (TML) are additives formerly used to improve gasoline octane ratings but are no longer in common use except in aviation gasoline.
Caustics. Caustics are added to desalting water to neutralize acids and reduce corrosion. They are also added to desalted crude in order to reduce the amount of corrosive chlorides in the tower overheads. They are used in some refinery treating processes to remove contaminants from hydrocarbon streams.
Oxygenates. Ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), tertiary amyl 0methyl ether (TAME), and other oxygenates improve gasoline octane ratings and reduce carbon monoxide emissions.
A variety of chemicals have been used to treat fabric after they are cleaned. These chemicals performs different functions such as flame retardants, waterproofing, deodorizing, stain repellents, refurbishing and pest control. By applying different chemical processes to a fabric, its durability can be enhanced.Here durability means that fabric can stand up to abrasion, exposure to sunlight and daily wear and tear, tough stains, while still performing consistently. Chemical application on a fabric can improve its versatility. By applying chemical process to a fabric one can obtain any texture, any thickness in that particular fabric.
Industrial chemicals are widespread in consumer products and in the environment. A large number of industrial chemicals are known to cause harm to our environment and to our health. Industrial chemicals are used for solving problems, though the consequences or the price to be paid, in the form of environmental degradation and poor public health is not known.
Commercially available industrial chemicals are used as starting materials or precursors, in the production of chemical agents. Industrial chemicals include chlorine, ammonia, solvents, pesticides, fertilizers and petrochemicals such as ethylene glycol and chlorinated hydrocarbons (such as chloroform and TCE). Industrial chemicals are extensively used in plastic manufacturing. Many toxic industrial chemicals might be used as weapons. For example, methyl isocyanate, the deadly gas that killed thousands in Bhopal, India.
Laboratory chemical consists numerous types of chemicals and the use and storage of these laboratory chemicals follow different guidelines. Some of the laboratory chemicals are aluminium chloride AlCl3 x6 H2O , aluminium nitrate Al(NO3)3 x9 H2O, ammonium acetate, barium carbonate, barium chloride, barium hexaboride, barium nitrate, cadmium carbonate, gadolinium acetylacetonate CH3COCH=C(O) – CH3 Gd, x H2O and many more. In general one should follow some simple guidelines to manage and store the laboratories chemicals. These provide a safe and secure work environment for students, staff, faculty, and visitors.
Some of the guidelines are that all the containers in which chemicals are stored must be clearly labeled. Absorbent material must be readily available so as to absorb any kind of spills and leaks. Inventory of the materials stored is important so as to keep in touch with the chemicals that may have been forgotten. Chemicals must be stored at an appropriate temperature and humidity level. Chemicals should never come in contact with direct sunlight. Chemicals that are no longer to be used for research purposes should be properly disposed of. Laboratories should separate chemicals according to similar hazards, such as flammability, corrosivity, sensitivity to water or air, and toxicity. Appropriate care should be exercised in the storage and handling of explosive chemicals.